- Applied behavior analysis - Wikipedia
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A stimulus is an "energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells". Reinforcement is the key element in operant conditioning  and in most behavior change programs.
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If a behavior is followed closely in time by a stimulus and this results in an increase in the future frequency of that behavior, then the stimulus is a positive reinforcer. If the removal of an event serves as a reinforcer, this is termed negative reinforcement. Punishment is a process by which a consequence immediately follows a behavior which decreases the future frequency of that behavior.
Applied behavior analysis - Wikipedia
As with reinforcement, a stimulus can be added positive punishment or removed negative punishment. Broadly, there are three types of punishment: presentation of aversive stimuli e. Extinction procedures are often preferred over punishment procedures, as many punishment procedures are deemed unethical and in many states prohibited. Nonetheless, extinction procedures must be implemented with utmost care by professionals, as they are generally associated with extinction bursts.
These novel behaviors are a core component of shaping procedures. In addition to a relation being made between behavior and its consequences, operant conditioning also establishes relations between antecedent conditions and behaviors. In other words, the relation between a behavior B and its context A is because of consequences C , more specifically, this relationship between AB because of C indicates that the relationship is established by prior consequences that have occurred in similar contexts.
A behavior which occurs more frequently in the presence of an antecedent condition than in its absence is called a discriminated operant. The antecedent stimulus is called a discriminative stimulus S D. The fact that the discriminated operant occurs only in the presence of the discriminative stimulus is an illustration of stimulus control.
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These conditions have been referred to variously as "Setting Event", "Establishing Operations", and "Motivating Operations" by various researchers in their publications. Skinner's classification system of behavior analysis has been applied to treatment of a host of communication disorders. When measuring behavior, there are both dimensions of behavior and quantifiable measures of behavior. In applied behavior analysis, the quantifiable measures are a derivative of the dimensions. These dimensions are repeatability, temporal extent, and temporal locus. This dimension indicates that each instance of behavior occupies some amount of time—i.
In applied behavior analysis, all experiments should include the following: . Prior to the seminal article on functional analytic methodology for aberrant behaviors, behaviorists used the behavioral technology available to them at the time. Instead of treating the function of the disruptive behavior, behavioral psychologists would instead pre-assume consequences to alter disruptive behaviors.
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For example, in the past to decrease self-injurious behavior in an individual, behaviorists may have delivered an aversive stimulus contingent on the response, or assume a reinforcer without identifying the reinforcer that would be most motivating to the client Iwata, This type of intervention was successful to the individual, but it was not uncommon to see other variations of aberrant behavior begin to appear. When applied behavior analysts let clients choose from a wide array of reinforcers often determined through data collection and reinforcement assessments in the mids, reinforcement was shown to be more effective than punishment contingencies.
In general, applied behavior analysis as a field favors reinforcement based interventions over aversive contingencies, but at the time the behavioral technology was not advanced enough and the individuals needing intervention had a right to an effective treatment Van Houten et al.
Nevertheless, not all behavioral therapies involved the use of aversives prior to the mids. Some behaviorists for instance, B.
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Skinner always preferred reinforcement and extinction contingencies over punishment even during that time. In , Dr. Edward Carr, PhD, a professor of psychology at Dept. This paper laid out the initial groundwork for a functional analysis of aberrant behaviors. In the paper, Dr.
Carr described five potential causes for self-injurious behaviors that included 1 positive social reinforcement contingent on the response, 2 negative reinforcement in the form of removal of an aversive stimulus contingent on the response, 3 the response produced stimuli possessed reinforcing qualities automatic reinforcement , 4 the behavior was a byproduct of an underlying psychological condition, and 5 psychodynamic hypothesis in which the behavior was an attempt to reduce guilt.
Throughout the paper, Carr cited recent research to support the first three hypotheses, and disprove the latter two hypotheses, but no formal experiment was conducted to determine the controlling variables of the problem behavior. Brian A. Iwata, Ph. Michael Dorsey, Ph. Keith J. Slifer, Ph. In the paper, the researchers alternated between specific conditions to examine whether or not the behavior occurred under specific environmental conditions.
Through direct manipulation of the environment, the researchers could accurately identify the controlling variables of the aberrant behavior, and provide interventions that targeted the functional relationship between the behavior and the environment. Since this seminal article was published, a wide range of research has been published in the area of functional analyses of aberrant behaviors. The methodology has since become the gold standard in assessment and treatment of aberrant behaviors. Functional assessment of behavior provides hypotheses about the relationships between specific environmental events and behaviors.
Decades of research have established that both desirable and undesirable behaviors are learned and maintained through interactions with the social and physical environment. Functional behavior assessments are used to identify controlling variables for challenging behaviors as the basis for intervention efforts designed to decrease the occurrence of these behaviors.
Put another way, individuals engage in behavior to get something or to get out of something. When trying to identify the function of a behavior, it is often helpful to think, "What purpose is this behavior serving the individual? Access to attention positive reinforcement: social : The individual engages in the behavior to obtain attention from another person.
For example, a child throws a toy because it characteristically results in a parent's attention. If this behavior results in a parent looking at child and giving them lots of attention—even if they're saying "NO"—he will be more likely to engage in the same behavior in the future to get a parent's attention. Common forms of attention include, but are not limited to, hugs, kisses, reprimands, frowns, smiles, etc. For example, a child hits their parent because they want the toy they are holding.
If this behavior results in a parent giving the child the toy, they will be more likely to engage in the same behavior in the future to get a parent's attention.
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Common forms of tangible items include, but are not limited to, food, toys, movies, video games, etc. Automatic positive reinforcement : The individual engages in the behavior because the response-produced stimulation possesses reinforcing characteristics. In other words, engaging in the behavior produces reinforcing stimulation unique to the specific context. For example, a child hits their eyes because it produces the specific stimulation of various colors and effects.
Another example includes a child spinning a bowl on a table to produce the specific auditory stimulation unique to that object. Common forms of automatic stimulation include, but are not limited to, auditory stimulation, visual stimulation, endorphin release, etc. Put another way, social situations that are aversive to the child are removed contingent on the behavior occurring.
For example, a child hits the teacher to avoid talking in front of the class. Common forms of aversive social situations include, but are not limited to, smiles, hugs, frowns, corrections, group settings, etc. For example, when a child is told to take a bath, they begin to cry, so their mother tells them that they no longer have to take a bath. Another example includes a teacher telling a student to complete a set of worksheets, to which the student flips the desk and is sent to the principal's office.
Being sent to the principal's office reinforced the behavior of flipping the desk because it allowed the child to escape the aversive activity of completing the worksheets. Automatic negative reinforcement : The individual engages in the behavior because it produces a decrease in aversive stimulation. Put another way, something aversive is occurring in some location on the organism's body, and engaging in the behavior decreases the level of discomfort.
For example, a child bangs their head against the wall to decrease the pain experienced from a toothache. Another example includes a child scratching their arm to decrease the level of itchiness experienced from a bug bite.
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Common forms of aversive stimulation abated by engaging in specific behaviors include sinus pain, itching, hunger, etc. As previously stated function refers to the effect the behavior produces on the environment. The actual form of the behavior is referred to the topography. Different behaviors may serve the same function, thus describing one limitation of treating behaviors based on form alone. For example, a child may scream, hit, and cry to obtain attention from their parent. What the behavior looks like often reveals little useful information about the conditions that account for it.
However, identifying the conditions that account for a behavior, suggests what conditions need to be altered to change the behavior. Therefore, assessment of function of a behavior can yield useful information with respect to intervention strategies that are likely to be effective. This method uses structured interviews, checklists, rating scales, or questionnaires to obtain information from persons who are familiar with the person exhibiting the behavior to identify possible conditions or events in the natural environment that correlate with the problem behavior.
They are referred to as "indirect" because they do not involve direct observation of the behavior, but rather they solicit information based on others' recollections of the behavior. This form of assessment typically yields the least reliable information about the function of behavior, but can provide insight as to possible functions of the behavior to be tested in the future, the form of the behaviors e.
This type of assessment should be performed as the initial step of any functional behavior assessment to gather relevant information to complete more direct assessments. Unlike the indirect methods of FBAs, descriptive functional behavior assessment employs direct observation of behavior. These observations occur in the environment in which the behavior naturally occurs e.
The most common form of descriptive assessment involves recording the antecedents and consequences that naturally occur when the individual emits the behavior. This is referred to as ABC data collection, in which A represents the common antecedent, B represents the behavior of interest, and C represents the immediate consequences that occur following the behavior.
ABC data collection is used to identify the naturally occurring consequences delivered in the environment in which the behavior occurs. ABC data collection can be conducted by a wide array of individuals who have received appropriate training on how to record the data.
Another form of descriptive FBA is called a scatterplot.